AI predicts odor

Artificial Intelligence Predicts Odors Like Humans

Humans detect smells by inhal­ing air that con­tains odor mol­e­cules, which then bind to recep­tors inside the nose, relay­ing mes­sages to the brain, where­as, AI inter­prets the sig­na­tures and clas­si­fies them based on a data­base of pre­vi­ous­ly col­lect­ed smells.

Unlike the human eye, which has only three sen­so­ry recep­tors for sens­ing the pho­tons of red, green, and blue col­or, the human nose has over 300 recep­tors, mak­ing it more dif­fi­cult to pre­dict smell than color.

A 2014 study showed that humans can dis­tin­guish at least 1 tril­lion dif­fer­ent odors. But you may won­der how an arti­fi­cial intel­li­gence will be able to han­dle the impos­si­ble. These are just ini­tial steps in AI sys­tems, which are being con­vert­ed more into human-like social indi­vid­u­als all over the world in dif­fer­ent areas.

In the recent times, Google has built an AI mod­el with a human-like capac­i­ty to pre­dict odors. Sci­en­tists have suc­cess­ful­ly for­mu­lat­ed a “Prin­ci­pal Odor Map” (POM) with the prop­er­ties of a sen­so­ry map. The map devel­oped by the team of Google AI links mol­e­c­u­lar struc­ture to the aro­ma of sub­stances and can even pre­dict smells that are still unno­tice­able by humans.

The Google researchers began the research in 2019 using a deep learn­ing algo­rithm. The type of smell inter­act­ed with the mol­e­c­u­lar struc­ture. Var­i­ous sam­ples of spe­cif­ic mol­e­cules were trained to be iden­ti­fied by a graph neur­al net­work (GNN) mod­el along with the smell labels they evoke, such as beefy, flo­ral, or minty.

Researchers looked into whether the GNN mod­el could learn to pre­dict the odors of new chem­i­cals that peo­ple had nev­er smelled before and that were dif­fer­ent from the mol­e­cules used to train it. The researchers referred to the study as an “impor­tant test” in their Google post. Many mod­els work well with data that resem­bles data they have pre­vi­ous­ly seen, but often fail when test­ed with new data.

The Google mod­el was suc­cess­ful and demon­strat­ed excep­tion­al intel­li­gence in pre­dict­ing smell from mol­e­cule structure.

The mod­el was also test­ed to see whether it could pre­dict how ani­mals would per­ceive odors. They found that the map was capa­ble of pre­cise­ly pre­dict­ing the activ­i­ty of sen­so­ry recep­tors, neu­rons, and behav­ior in most of the ani­mals that olfac­to­ry neu­ro­sci­en­tists have stud­ied, includ­ing mice and insects.

AI detect­ing odors can be used for a vari­ety of tasks, includ­ing iden­ti­fy­ing scents in the envi­ron­ment to aid peo­ple who have lost their sense of smell; and cre­at­ing new arti­fi­cial scents.

The research team at Google found that the com­mon appli­ca­tion of the sense of smell may be to detect and dis­tin­guish between var­i­ous meta­bol­ic states, such as know­ing when some­thing is ripe vs rot­ten, nutri­tious vs inert, or healthy vs sick.

They had gath­ered data about meta­bol­ic reac­tions in dozens of species across the king­doms of life and found that the map cor­re­spond­ed close­ly to metab­o­lism itself.

The sci­en­tists retrained the mod­el to tack­le the issue of the spread of dis­eases trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes and ticks while killing hun­dreds of thou­sands of peo­ple each year.

The team improved the orig­i­nal mod­el with two new sources of data. The first set was a long-for­got­ten set of exper­i­ments con­duct­ed by the USDA on human vol­un­teers begin­ning 80 years ago and recent­ly made dis­cov­er­able by Google Books. Sec­ond­ly, a new dataset was col­lect­ed by their part­ners at TOPIQ, using their high-through­put lab­o­ra­to­ry mos­qui­to assay.

With the help of the POM, researchers hope to pre­dict ani­mal olfac­tion to bet­ter respond to the dead­ly dis­eases trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes and ticks. Both datasets mea­sure how well a giv­en mol­e­cule keeps the mos­qui­tos away. Togeth­er, the result­ing mod­el can pre­dict the mos­qui­to repel­lence of near­ly any mol­e­cule, enabling a vir­tu­al screen over huge swaths of mol­e­c­u­lar space.

“Less expen­sive, longer last­ing, and safer repel­lents can reduce the world­wide inci­dence of dis­eases like malar­ia, poten­tial­ly sav­ing count­less lives,” said the researchers.

Accord­ing to their find­ings, a Prin­ci­pal Odor Map might be pro­duced using the researchers’ method of smell pre­dic­tion in order to tack­le odor-relat­ed issues more wide­ly. The key to mea­sur­ing smell was in the map. It pro­vid­ed answers to a vari­ety of ques­tions regard­ing new odors and the mol­e­cules respon­si­ble for them. The mod­el also linked the evo­lu­tion of odors to the nat­ur­al world.

To sum up, AI algo­rithms do have a poten­tial to effec­tive­ly pre­dict smell. The Google mod­el was one of the first to demon­strate this.

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